We hope we find you well. This is the first time in the Epixfab newsletter that we include a column from the editorial team, and this time we will give an appendix of the silicon nitride technology for situs slot rtp tertinggi of the Microelectronics Institute of Barcelona (Spain) IMB-CNM.

One of the main developments expected in digital optical communications is Quantum Computing (QC), and there is a need for the development of related hardware. In the past, the quantum computer was seen as future research still far from a product, where many optic components in free space were required in order to achieve different functionalities. However, as the development of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) advances, the possibility of controlling and guiding a single photon on a chip in order to achieve QC applications with footprints smaller than 2 cm x 2 cm is now achievable, allowing for the possibility of finally bringing the theoretical quantum ideas to the real world. Silicon nitride is one of the most efficient photonic materials due to its intrinsic properties, which comprises wide transparency (from the visible to the far infrared ranges of the spectrum), low losses, thermal stability, and absence of two photon absorption in telecom bands, allocating the Silicon Nitride technology as one of the most promising for slot gacor terbaru integrated platforms in quantum computing. Within this context, we present the current state and forthcoming developments of our open access photonic foundry based on Silicon Nitride technology CMOS fab. Furthermore, we discuss the access models, supported by generic integration and process design kits (PDKs). Enabled technical features and tools, and application examples into the platform are also outlined in this column.

IMB-CNM has been a pioneer foundry since the late 90’s in the field of photonic sensors exploiting silicon nitride, contributing to many key developments in the field. Following up with their efforts on silicon nitride-based sensing, IMB-CNM has participated as well in the development of a platform for integration of photonic circuits. The Silicon Nitride photonics integration platform is based on a moderate confinement technology roulette casino aiming at covering a wavelength range from the VIS to the long NIR (400-3700 nm) for photonic integrated applications such as biophotonics, tele/datacom and sensing. Silicon Nitride structures fabricated using an i-line stepper (500 nm resolution) are performed with CMOS compatible fabrication equipment. The process makes use of 100 mm (4 inch) Si wafers. A layer stack of SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 is formed on top of the wafer as follows. Firstly, a SiO2 buffer (2.5 μm thick) is grown by thermal oxidation of the silicon substrate. Following a 300 nm thick Si3N4 layer is deposited via LPCVD. Basic waveguide cross sections for NIR (nitride film 300 nm height, shallow 150/300, deep 300 and mini-deep 150 nm). The process technical features include thermo-optic tuners and selective area trenching.

The multi project wafer (MPW) approach consists on the fabrication of the PIC in a batch or fabrication run where the wafer surface can sharing costs with other costumers and hence, cover the expenses of only the specific area of the chip. A Process Design Kit (PDK) is available for the Synopsis/PhoeniX Software platform, containing all the technology related information automatized for the design, simulation and layout of the user components, and the guidelines to submit contributions to the platform. All the processes are briefed in the design manual available through DKLA with VLC Photonics. The developed blocks produced with the technology are: Low-loss shallow waveguides with 0.3 dB/cm, deep waveguides for sharp bending with < 50 microns radius, 1×2 and 2×2 MMI couplers with arbitrary splitting rations, tuneable Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferometers Arrayed Waveguide Gratings with custom channel count and wavelength spacing/FSR, Echelles Gratings, ring resonators with Q-factors up to 1M, and more. Whereas the dedicated process approach, strategy is highly recommended to customers with access to licenses and design software by means of their own experts, such as research institutes and universities or for industrialization process companies. Within the fabrication of a large amount of wafers by our technology results more cost effective. For sensing applications, we present two examples. The bimodal waveguides that shows a very high sensitivity and low limit of detection, improving the Mach Zehnder performances, these structures are now for the development of a Covid-19 rapid detection device. Furthermore, a Nanoscopy based on total internal reflection fluorescence structures (TIRF), performed by the Silicon Nitride technology developed in our platform is also shown. Finally, we present some examples of the devices designed, fabricated, and tested in our platform. In addition, by now, we are implementing more components of the PDKs for the integrated reconfigurable circuits for quantum applications such as Quantum Computing, Neuromorphics, Sensing or Telecommunications.

Interested in this technology? Contact: Carlos Dominguez: carlos.dominguez@imb-cnm.csic.es Jad Sabek: jad.sabek@imb-cnm.csic.es

Written by Jad Sabek

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